The first computer, the ENIAC, was created in 1945. Today’s computers use SoCs (System on a Chip) and are about the size of a coin. The power and speed of today’s machines are hundreds of thousands of times greater than the ENIAC. These new computers use billions of transistors and run on just a few watts of electricity.
The second generation of computers introduced multiprogramming and multiprocessor configurations, as well as the first operating systems. It also introduced the master/slave mode, limit registers, and protection associated with address translation. Atomic instructions were also introduced in this generation. By the time the Third Generation of computers was introduced in 1966, the world was using computers that were as fast as the UNIVAC, and had prices that were within the range of most people’s budgets.
In the first generation, the Commodore Pet was the first portable personal computer, and was later followed by the IBM computer. Its popularity prompted many companies to enter the computer business. These machines became known as “home computers”, and they sold millions of units. Eventually, the market crashed as prices increased, and the smallest machines were no longer capable of running large amounts of information. However, by the fourth generation of computers, the number of features and capabilities of computers increased dramatically.
In the 1980s, monolithic integrated circuit technology was introduced, which allowed for the miniaturisation of transistors onto silicon chips. This resulted in the Intel 4004 chip, the first commercially available microprocessor. The Altair 8800, with 64 KB of RAM, was introduced to the public. It had a magnetic disk drive and a touchscreen. With the advent of the Macintosh, Apple made computing easier for the masses.
In the second generation, a small computer that could be used by one person was marketed as a “personal computer.” In the third generation, a computer was a personal digital assistant. This type of machine was a personal assistant. In the fourth generation, computers were mostly character-based decimal or binary, and they were primarily used to calculate mathematical equations. They were a common form of computing.
While the power and storage capacities of new and old computers have increased, the technology that powers them has remained the same. A few major changes have occurred to the hardware, but the underlying technology remains the same. In the 1970s, an IBM 1401 cost $880/month to rent. The largest IBM S/360 cost several million dollars. By the end of the century, the emergence of a DVD player was widespread.
A personal computer can be used by one person or by multiple people. There are many differences between a desktop and a laptop. Some are faster and smaller than others. For instance, a newer desktop has more RAM than an old one. A laptop has more memory. A mobile computer has fewer peripherals, which makes it easy to carry around. It is more expensive to buy a handheld version of a desktop or a notebook.
The invention of the stored-program computer was an important breakthrough that revolutionized computing. Its electronic storage eliminated clumsy methods of programming, such as paper, plugboards, and punched cards. The first laptops also had a smaller screen. In addition to the VHS, there were a few models in the VAX family. Among them, the VAX-11/780, the most recent, was a powerful and efficient personal computer.
The technology that powers the computers has undergone some significant evolutions. The first computer was a massive, expensive, and high-end piece of equipment. Its creators wanted to make it a more accessible device that could serve a wide range of applications. By the late ’60s, IBM began to make personal computers widely available to the public, and by the 1970s, the company had developed the first one.